The Full form of BEC is Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which discrete atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to close to absolute zero (0 K, − 273.15 °C, or − 459.67 °F; K = K), fuse in A single mechanical entity quantity, i.e. a unit that can be described by a wave function, on a quasi-macroscopic scale. This form of matter was predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 on the basis of the quantum formulas of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose.
Although predicted for decades, the first atomic BEC was only made in 1995, when Eric Cornell and Carl Wiemann of JILA, a research institution run by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado at Boulder. cooling a gas of rubidium atoms to 1.7 × 10−7 K above absolute zero. Together with Wolfgang Ketterle of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), who created BEC with sodium atoms, these researchers were awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics. Research on BEC has expanded understanding of quantum physics and led to the discovery of new physical effects.
Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) has to do with the phase of matter related to solid gas, liquid, and plasma. This came about when the 1924 Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose submitted an article to Einstein on Pank’s Law from which Einstein generalized the theory to an ideal gas of identical atoms or molecules in which the number of particles is conserved.
In the same year, he predicted that at extremely low temperatures the particles would lock or overlap in the lowest quantum state of the system, resulting in Bose Einstein’s statistics. Because of the contribution of Satyendra Nath Bose, BEC got it’s full form as Bose Einstein Condensate to the tribute to legendry Indian Physicist S. N. Bose.
The refrigerator he invented in 1926 functioned as an absorption refrigerator and required no moving parts or electricity to function. All it needed was heat to function. Therefore, I only needed something like a small gas burner. His former student jointly helped invent the refrigerator.
Overall, Albert Einstein lived as one of the most acclaimed physicists of our time. Ultimately, he lived as a great thinker, discoverer, and inventor. The above are just a few of the theories and inventions that he created.
We are going to discuss a very interesting scientific concept that is the fifth state of matter or the Bose Einstein Condensate. The Bose Einstein Condensate has been recently created in the microgravity of the international space station for the very first time so let’s try to understand –
What this fifth state of matter or the Bose Einstein Condensate is? and why its creation on the international space station is a big achievement for the scientific community?
So, in our daily life we generally interact with three states of matter the solid liquid and gas the fourth state or plasma is a high energy state and it occurs in high energy processes like during lightning or at the core of a star.
So then how did the fifth state come into being for the very first time in 1920 Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose did some calculations for the existence of a fifth state of matter building on his calculation’s albert Einstein predicted a new state of matter which eventually came to be known as the Bose Einstein condensate.
However, till this point of time it was only at a theoretical stage it was only 1995 that two scientists Cornell and women finally created this condensate and in 2001 scientists eric Cornell Wolfgang Ketterle and carl e wee man received the Nobel prize in physics for achieving the Bose Einstein condensation.
How the Bose Einstein condensates are created
So let’s understand how the Bose Einstein condensates are created? When you hear the word, condensate think about the process of condensation and the way gas molecules come together and condense into a liquid the molecules get denser or they get packed closer to it all happens because there is a loss of energy these gases, they are really excited atoms when they lose energy they slow down and they begin to collect they can collect into one drop like what happens with steam when it condenses to water the water vapor poos on the metal and becomes a liquid again.
You then have a condensate the same thing happens with the Bose Einstein Condensate but it happens at super low temperatures at temperatures that are near absolute zero or the zero kelvin when you get to a temperature near absolute zero something special happens at 0 kelvin all molecular motion stops atoms begin to clump and they lose all their energy since there is no more energy to transfer.
Bose Einstein Condensate Uses
All of the atoms have exactly the same levels they act like twins the result of this clumping is the Bose Einstein Condensate. The group of atoms sit in the same place creating a super atom there are no longer thousands of separate atoms they all take on the same qualities, at this point the atoms become a single entity with quantum properties.
Wherein each particle also functions as a wave of matter so in essence the Bose Einstein condensate is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density to super low temperatures to temperatures near absolute zero or zero kelvin or minus 273 degrees Celsius the density of these gases is about 100000 the density of normal air.
You can also remember that if plasma is super-hot and super excited atoms the atoms of Bose Einstein Condensate are totally opposite, they are super unexcited and super cold atoms so then what was the need to create them in microgravity of the international space station.
The Bose Einstein Condensates they straddle the line between the macroscopic world that is governed by forces such as gravity and the microscopic plane ruled by quantum mechanics due to which these condensates offer fundamental insights into quantum mechanics as well but their measurement is distorted due to effect of gravity on earth.
The Bose Einstein Condensates are extremely fragile and slightly interaction with external world warns them past their condensation threshold.
This makes their study nearly impossible on earth where the gravity also interferes with the magnetic fields that are required to hold them in place for observation due to these limitations nasa launched a cold atoms lab to the international space station in 2018.
The creation of Bose Einstein Condensates on the international space station will make the study of its properties easier it was observed that the condensates in the microgravity of the international space station can be observed and measured longer than that on earth.
On earth the observation is possible for tens of milliseconds while on the international space station it increased to just over a second.
What makes the Bose Einstein Condensates interesting for the scientific studies
The Bose Einstein Condensates are related to two remarkable low temperature phenomena. The first one is super fluidity in which the Bose Einstein Condensates flow with zero friction. Second is superconductivity in which the electrons move through a material with zero electrical resistance. experts also believe that the Bose Einstein Condensate contain vital clues to the mysterious phenomena such as dark energy. The experiments on the international space station will help us in test of general relativity searches for dark energy and gravitational waves better navigation of spacecrafts study of quantum mechanics. On a macroscopic level and also it will help us in prospecting for the subsurface minerals on moon and other planetary bodies so this has been our discussion on the fifth state of matter or the Bose Einstein decide.