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Bijoliya Kisan Andolan – History, Reasons and Outcome

The Bijoliya Kisan Andolan was an organized peasant movement that started in Rajasthan and spread throughout the country. Bijoliya Kisan Andolan was the longest nonviolent peasant movement in history, lasting approximately 44 years.

The stages of the Bijoliya Kisan Andolan

1. Phase I (1897-1916) – Leadership – Sadhu Sitaram Das

2. Phase II (1916-1923) – Leadership – Vijay Singh Pathik

3. Phase III (1927-1941) – Leadership – Manikya Lal Verma

Bijoliya Kisan Andolan

Known as the longest nonviolent peasant movement in Indian history, the Bijoliya Kisan Andolan took place in Bijolia (former name Vijayavalli) in the Mewar region. Bijolia’s lair was under the jagir of Uparmal. This Uparmal jagir was gifted by Rana Sanga to a person named Ashok Parmar to accompany him in the Battle of Khanwa.

Originally, most of the farmers were from the Dhakad caste. The Thikanedar imposed 84 different types of oppressive taxes on farmers (Lag, Bagh, Begar, Lata, Kunta, Chavari, Talwar Bandai). In 1894, Rao Krishna Singh became the new Thikanedar. Farmers affected by these taxes were to obtain tax relief from the new Tikanedar, but no tax relief was granted until 1897. Therefore, the basis for this movement was laid in the same year from 1897.

The stages of the Bijoliya Kisan Andolan

This movement can be understood by dividing it into three phases on the basis of leadership:

1. Phase I (1897-1916) – Leadership – Sadhu Sitaram Das

In 1897, after convening a panchayat in Girdharpur, a village in the same mansion, it was decided under the presidency of Sadhu Sitaramdas that the current Thikanedar Raokrishna Singh would complain to the Maharana of Mewar. Thakri Patel and Nanji Patel have been appointed for this post. On this complaint, the Mewar Maharana appointed his investigator Hamidhusain, but no action was taken after the investigation.

After the investigation, no action was taken due to inaction, Bijolia’s hiding place, Raokrishna Singh was encouraged and kicked out whistleblowers Thakri Patel and Nanji Patel from Mewar in retaliation. In addition, in 1903 a new tax called Chanwari was introduced, under which a cash tax of 5 rupees was provided for the girl’s marriage.

After the childless death of Raokrishna Singh in 1906, Raoprithvi Singh succeeded him. As soon as he became a thikanedar, he tied the sword and imposed the inheritance tax. Farmers strongly opposed it.

Vijay Singh Pathik ji Leader of bijoliya kisan andolan
Vijay Singh Pathik ji

2. Phase II (1916-1923) – Leadership – Vijay Singh Pathik

In 1916, at the request of Sadhu Sitaram Das, Vijay Singh Pathik joined this movement and assumed the leadership of this movement. His original name was Bhupsingh and he resided in Bulandshahr (U.P.). In 1917, he formed the Council of Upramal Panch (13 members) on the day of Sawan-Amavasya. Manna Petal has been appointed to the position of Sarpanch of this Panchaboard.

In 1918, Vijay Singh met Gandhiji in Bombay and introduced him to this movement. Gandhiji was very impressed with them and awarded him the title of national traveler. Gandhiji sent his secretary general Mahadev Desai to investigate this decision.

Here in 1919, Vijay Singh produced a letter titled Rajasthan Kesari from Wardha Maharashtra, and in the same year he also created the Rajasthan Sevak Sangh. Later, through the newspaper published in Kanpur, the Bijolia farmers’ movement spread across India.

Due to Gandhi’s interest in this movement, the British government set up another commission of inquiry in 1918-19 under the chairmanship of Bindulala Bhattacharya. After an investigation by this commission, a tax cut was made.

On September 10, 1923, Vijay Singh Pathik was arrested for his association with another peasant movement called Bengu.

3. Phase III (1927-1941) – Leadership – Manikya Lal Verma

From 1927, Manikya Lal Verma took over the leadership of the Bijolia farmers’ movement. In this, Haribhau Upadhyay and Jamnalal Bajaj supported him. In 1941, there was an agreement between Manikya Lal Verma and the Prime Minister of Mewar, Sir T. Vijay Raghavacharya, under which all the demands of the farmers were accepted and the 44-year-old movement ended.

The Bijoliya Kisan Andolan is distinguished from other peasant movements by its non-violent character. Manikya Lal Varma’s song “Panchhida”, which excited the farmers, has a few key points. Women have also been actively involved in this movement, including Anjana Devi Choudhary, Narayan Devi Verma and Rama Devi. Finally, with the victory this 44-year-old Indian peasant movement came to an end.

Bijoliya Kisan Andolan FAQ and answers –

Question: When did the Bijoliya Kisan Andolan take place?

Answer: – Farmer Bijolia movementt started in 1897 in the Bijolia region of Mewar. The Bijoliya Kisan Andolan lasted 44 years, with three phases, the first phase (1897-1916), the second phase (1916-1923), the third and final phase (1927-1941).

Question: – Who was the leader of the Bijolia peasant movement / who was the father of the Bijolia peasant movement?

Answer: Sadhu Sitaram Das was the leader of the Bijolia farmers movement or the father of the Bijolia farmers movement. He led the first phase (1897-1916) of the Bijolia peasant movement. After him, the leader of the second phase (1916-1923) Produced by Vijay Singh Pathik. After that, the third and final phase of this movement (1927-1941) was led by Manikya Lal Verma.

Question: What were the main reasons for the Bijolia peasant movement?

Answer: – The main reasons for the Bijolia peasant movement were 84 kinds of oppressive taxes imposed on farmers like Lag, Bagh, Begar, Lata, Kunta, Chavari, Talwar Bandhai, etc. The condition of the farmers, whose burden was increasing day by day.

Question: – What was the result of the Bijolia farmers’ movement?

Answer: – Following the Bijolia Farmers Movement, in 1941 AD, all farmers’ demands were accepted and the nonviolent Bijolia Farmers Movement which lasted for 44 years ended the agreement.

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