The young king of Macedonia, the leader of the Greeks, the ruler of Asia Minor and the pharaoh of Egypt, became the king of Persia at the age of 25. Alexander III (Sikandar King) spent most of his reign leading military campaigns in Asia and Northeast Africa, creating one of the greatest empires of the ancient world.
Reign of Sikandar King
Alexander was awarded the rank of General of Greece and used this right to launch his father’s Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. Sikandar King took over the kingdom of Macedonia after the death of his father Philip II, who united most of the city-states of mainland Greece under the name of the Greek League of Macedonia.
Alexander marched east against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under the rule of the “king of kings” Darius II, whom he defeated and overthrew. Later he overthrew the Persian king Darius III and completely conquered the Achaemenid empire.
After reaffirming Macedonian hegemony, suppressing the revolt of the southern Greek city-states, including the sack of Thebes, and organizing a short but bloody excursion against Macedonian’s northern neighbors, Sikandar King marched east against the Achaemenid Persian Empire, which he defeated and reversed.
Philip established Macedonian hegemony in Greece militarily and diplomatically, Sikandar King left in 334 BC. E. For his famous conquests, the first and most famous of which was the defeat and conquest of Persia (which then controlled a vast territory, which included the modern countries of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey). In two years he conquered the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, entered Persia and near the city of Issus defeated the great Persian king Darius III.
Battles of Sikandar King
At 332-331. B.C. He conquered Egypt and defeated Darius again in the Battle of Gaugamela and captured Babylon. 334 BC. Invaded the Achaemenid Empire, ruled Asia Minor, and began a series of battles that lasted ten years. Alexander broke the Persian sphere of influence in a series of decisive battles, especially in the battle between Issus and Gaugamel.
In 333 BC. Alexander and his forces defeated the greatest army of the Persian king Darius III (reigned 336-330 BC) at the Battle of Issos. In 331 BC. Sikandar King met King Darius III again on the battlefield of Gaugamel (also called the Battle of Arbel), where, again in the face of an overwhelming number, he finally defeated Darius III, who had fled the battlefield. Darius fled again, and Alexander won a great and decisive victory in July 331 BC. E. Babylon greeted the conqueror, and Alexander made sacrifices to the Babylonian god Marduk.
Also Read: Alamgir II: His life as an Emperor and his End
His invasion in India
Alexander had a legendary history of invincible wars, first against the Persian Achaemenids under the command of Darius III, then against local leaders and lords as far as the far east of Punjab, India, this Alexander is considered one of the most successful military leaders. Alexander earned the honorific epithet “Great” for his unprecedented success as a military leader. He is known as a great military genius as well as for his diplomatic ability in managing the populations of the regions he conquered.
He is also known for spreading Greek culture, language and thought from Greece through Asia Minor, Egypt and Mesopotamia to India and thus initiated the Hellenistic period (323-31 BC) during the reign of his four generals (his successors, known as Diadochi) continued his policy of integrating Greek (Hellenistic) culture with the culture of the Middle East in the intervals between the wars for domination.
Also Read: Bijoliya Kisan Andolan – History, Reasons and Outcome
How Sikandar King ascended the throne
Darius fled to Ecbatana in Media, and Sikandar King occupied Babylon, the capital of the Susa empire, and the Persian capital of Persepolis, after which he was proclaimed king of Asia. During the feast that followed, King Philip II was assassinated by Pausanias, a Macedonian nobleman.
His father Philip was killed in 336 BC. after the wedding of Cleopatra of Macedon, sister of Alexander, and Alexander ascended the throne of the Kingdom of Macedonia. By the time he died at the age of 32years, he had conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks.
Death of King Philip and Alexander’s responsibility towards the throne:
In 336 BC. Alexander’s father, Philip, was killed by his bodyguard Pausanias. Alexander was only 16 years old when Philip entered the battle and left command of Macedonia to his son.
When Sikandar King left for Asia, he left behind his general Antipater, an experienced political and military leader who was part of Philip II’s “old guard” in charge of Macedonia. Ironically, however, Sikandar King often fought Greek mercenaries in the battle against Darius III.
More ironically, Sparta, a city famous for losing its king and 300 warriors at the Battle of Wenquan Pass during the Persian invasion attempt, also opposed Sikandar King and even sought the help of the Persians in an attempt to overthrow his rule. Ancient sources say that Alexander often used the Persians to invade Greece in the 5th century BC when fighting the Persians and their king Darius III.
Also Read : Hasan Al Basri: His birth, death and love for his religion